I recently had a discussion with Greg McCarthy, until recently, CEO of RTWSA (South Australia’s Workers Compensation Authority). Greg explained to me some of the thinking behind the revamped South Australian workers compensation scheme introduced under his stewardship.
While I would accept that it is a political decision to determine the extent of coverage provided by compensation schemes, there is one concept adopted by the current SA model that has relevance to health outcomes. That is the concept of legislated ‘hard’ boundaries.
The limits to an insurer’s liability to provide funding can be ‘soft’ or ‘hard’. A ‘hard’ boundary is one where there is little or no scope for challenge. Such boundaries include cut-off dates, whether for period of income support or age restrictions on claimants, and ceilings on amounts payable. The current SA scheme limits income replacement to 2 years. Even the best lawyer can’t argue an entitlement beyond a cut-off date!
An example of a ‘soft’ boundary is the provision in Tasmanian Worker’s Compensation Legislation (and most worker’s compensation schemes) to limit liability for psychological injuries. The Tasmanian provisions are intended to save employers from liability where a psychological injury results from a reasonable employment decision. These include psychological injury arising from disciplinary action for poor employee performance or the psychological consequences for an employee missing out on a promotion.
In my experience, the reality is that the existance of these psychological injury exclusions leads to an environment where a very high proportion of psychological injury claims in the Tasmanian Scheme are disputed. There is significant ‘collateral’ damage from this provision for workers who have valid claims, but are rejected by the initial claims management processes.
Another ‘soft’ boundary is the stipulation that ‘reasonable’ medical expenses are covered by a compensation scheme. There can be protracted and expensive argument about whether some significant medical procedures, such as spinal fusion or neurostimulator implants are reasonable expenses. Sometimes the legal costs of the ensuing argument is more expensive than the procedure itself! At the GP management level, there can be debate or delays in proceeding with relatively routine medical investigations or treatment, causing delay and frustration.
The so-called ‘Narrative’ test for Victorian workers to gain access to Common Law (as an alternative to meeting the relatively high WPI criterion for access), is another example of a ‘soft’ boundary that has resulted in a burgeoning video surveillance industry to provide evidence to satisfy the legal system in its attempts to adjudicate on access to Common Law.
Although I have not had direct personal experience, I understand that legislated requirements to review work capacity in some Australian Compensation Schemes act as ‘soft’ boundaries. These have resulted in considerable waste of sources to settle the arguments that ensued from these requirements.
The negative effects on recovery and the psychological impact from the delay to resolve issues at these ‘soft’ boundaries need to be factored into the equation to optimise scheme design. What might be a best-practice legal process to negotiate a ‘soft’ boundary, through its inherent adversarialism, will result in a direct financial cost, and perhaps more importantly, often cause a delay that will impact of the health and rehabilitation outcome. This can undermine the intention of the scheme to assist recovery and return to work.
A ‘hard’ boundary alternative to liability for medical treatment, might be to specify limits to spending on treatment to a $ figure per case or having a blanket exclusion for questionable expensive medical procedures. The debate about what is reasonable is held at a ‘system’ level, rather than being worked at on a ‘case by case’ basis where individual claimants are directly impacted.
In my experience talking to patients under my care, the existence of a ‘hard’ boundary can be helpful in highlighting options available to progress treatment and recovery and remove the delay, cost and stress of legal involvement to pursue an uncertain outcome.
AN IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION FOR COMPENSATION SCHEME DESIGNERS!